A solution is a means of solving a problem or dealing with a difficult situation. A solution may really solve the problem, it may not.
A resolution is either a firm decision to do or not to do something, which is the outcome of the implementation of a solution. Sometimes the solution works, and it indeed fix the problem. Sometimes the solution doesn’t work, and the problem isn’t solved.
A resolution often claims to be the solution to a problem. You can consider the resolution as a goal to solve a problem. Based on this assumption, you can consider solution as the plan to achieve the goal. A solution can result in a resolution. A resolution can be the result of a solution.
Be aware, a problem can have a solution but never be resolved (resolution)
“The man and his wife did not get along, so the solution (解决方案) was to get a divorce. However, there was never a resolution (决议，最终的解决) to the problem since she refused to sign the papers.”